Introduction to Vaadin

Introduction to Vaadin

Vaadin is a robust, open-source platform for web application development. It is a server-side Java framework that allows developers to build high-quality user interfaces entirely in Java without needing HTML, CSS, or JavaScript. Vaadin's unique approach to web development focuses on productivity, security, and creating single-page web applications with a rich user experience.

What is Vaadin?

Vaadin is a Java framework for building user interfaces that has many extensibility options, themes, and components. Every modification you make to the user interface is promptly sent to the server because of the framework's server side support, which ensures that the backend application is always informed of what is happening in the front end. With a client side built on top of the well-known Google Widget Toolkit framework and a server side handled by the VaadinServlet, Vaadin is composed of a client and a server side.

Vaadin's Key Features

  1. Single Programming Language: Vaadin allows developers to write both the front-end and backend of web applications in Java, eliminating the need to learn JavaScript, HTML, or CSS.

  2. Component-Based: Vaadin provides a comprehensive set of UI components, including buttons, forms, grids, and dialogues. These components can be easily customized and extended to fit your application's needs.

  3. Data Binding: Vaadin supports data binding, simplifying the process of connecting your UI to your data model. This feature reduces the boilerplate code you need to write and makes your code easier to maintain.

  4. Server-Side Architecture: In Vaadin, most application logic runs securely on the server. This architecture simplifies development and improves security by minimizing the exposure of your application's internals to the client side.

  5. Themeable UIs: Vaadin supports theming, allowing you to customize the look and feel of your application quickly. You can use one of Vaadin's built-in themes or create your own.

  6. Integration with Java Ecosystem: Vaadin seamlessly integrates with the Java ecosystem. You can use it with popular tools and technologies like Spring, Java EE, and Maven.

Getting Started with Vaadin

To start using Vaadin, you need to add the following dependencies to your pom.xml:



The vaadin-server package includes classes for handling all server details such as sessions, client communication, etc. The vaadin-client-compiled package is based on GWT and includes the necessary packages to compile the client. The vaadin-themes package comprises pre-made themes and all utilities for making our themes.

Building a Simple Vaadin Application

A typical Vaadin application consists of a main class that extends the UI class from the framework and a servlet that is defined using annotations. In order to finish the bootstrapping of the application with Vaadin enabled, the main class must override the "init" method.

Here is a simple example of a Vaadin application:


@WebServlet(urlPatterns = "/VAADIN/*", name = "MyUIServlet",
            asyncSupported = true)
@VaadinServletConfiguration(ui = VaadinUI.class,
                            productionMode = false)
public static class MyUIServlet extends VaadinServlet {

public class VaadinUI extends UI {
    protected void

    init(VaadinRequest vaadinRequest)
        VerticalLayout verticalLayout
            = new VerticalLayout();

In this example, the MyUIServlet is serving content from the /VAADIN path. The VaadinUI class, which is referenced in the servlet, extends the UI class from the framework. It overrides the init method to create a layout and add it to the main layout of the application.

Vaadin Layout Managers

Vaadin comes with a number of predefined layout managers:

  1. VerticalLayout: Stacks the components on a column where the first added is on the top and the latest is on the bottom.

  2. HorizontalLayout: Places each component side by side from left to right.

  3. GridLayout: Each widget must be placed in a grid, and the grid's columns and rows must be given as parameters.

  4. FormLayout: Organises the caption and the component into two separate columns and offers the ability to indicate whether fields are necessary or optional.

Vaadin Components

Vaadin provides a wide range of UI components for constructing your user interface. Some of the more common components include:

  1. Label: Used to display text.

  2. Link: A basic hyperlink.

  3. TextField: Used to input text.

  4. TextArea: Used to input multiple lines of text.

  5. DateField and InlineDateField: Used to pick dates.

  6. PasswordField: A standard masked password input.

  7. RichTextArea: Shows formatted text and provides an interface to manipulate such text with buttons to control the fonts, size, alignment, etc.

  8. Button: Used for capturing user input and come in a variety of sizes and colours.

  9. CheckBox: A change state element is checked or unchecked.

  10. Lists: Vaadin has some useful widgets to handle lists like ComboBox, ListSelect, NativeSelect, and TwinColSelect.

  11. Grid: Used to show data in a rectangular way; you have rows and columns and can define a header and foot for the data.


Vaadin is a powerful framework for creating modern web applications using Java. It offers a wide range of tools and features that make development easier and let you produce interactive web apps of the highest calibre. Whether you're a seasoned Java developer or just starting out, Vaadin is a great tool to have in your web development toolkit.

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